• idler

    On a merchant ship, those crew members who do not stand a regular watch.

  • Kerosene, used in lamps.
  • Resistance to disease, developed naturally or through exposure.
  • A rotor or rotor blade. In pumps and turbines, it is powered and moves air or other fluids. In measuring instruments, it is moved by a fluid passing it, and rotations can be counted.
  • Empty of cargo but carrying ballast: stones or sand or something else of low value to give the ship enough weight and stability.
  • Refers to either a native of India, or to Native Americans. Columbus used this term for native people because he mistakenly thought he had landed on the subcontinent of India.
  • Native to a place.
  • An economy that sustains itself by processing raw materials or resources into manufactured items.
  • Near shore. In fishing it refers to the area considered to be fishable in a day's trip from shore. Formal definitions describe this as 6 nautical miles (a nautical mile is slightly longer than a land mile) from land.

  • An engine whose power is developed by burning fuel inside the working cylinders or combustion chamber. Generally refers to piston-driven engines like gasoline and diesel engines, but turbines used on jet aircraft and ships are also internal combustion engines.
  • head
    Marine toilet.
  • International Code of Signals
    A series of signal flags and pennants, one flag for each letter of the alphabet and one pennant for each number between 0 and 9. There are three additional pennants for substitutes and four more with special meanings agreed on by all maritime countries for communication between ships and between ship and shore.
  • The land exposed between high and low tides.
  • Potato Famine
    In 1845 the Irish potato crop contracted a fungus (phytophthera infestans) that caused the potato plants to rot. The fungus was originally transported in the holds of ships traveling from North America to England, where winds carried it to Ireland. At that time Irish farms were owned by English landlords who charged the Irish peasants rent. The Irish lived largely on potatoes, while exporting their other crops, such as wheat, to England in order to pay the rent on their farms. When the potato failed, there was devastating starvation and disease among the Irish peasants. Some corn was imported from the United States, but not enough. During this time millions of Irish people died and many were forced to leave the country for British North America (Canada) around Quebec and Montreal. The ships they traveled on were known as “coffin ships” because so many people became ill and died on the voyages. From Canada, many of the surviving immigrants made their way to northeastern U.S. cities.
  • Great Isaac Island
    A small island in the Bahamas, on which there is a lighthouse known as Great Isaac light, built in 1859.
  • A small uninhabited island in the archipelago of Puerto Rico. Today it is administered by the U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The island has no surface water, so it has only limited plants and animals.
  • Fernando de Noronha
    A group of 21 islands in the Atlantic Ocean, 220 miles off the coast of Brazil. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1503.
  • Isla San Lorenzo
    An island in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Callao, Peru.
  • An isthmus is a narrow, connecting piece of land between two larger pieces. The Isthmus of Panama is the site of the Panama Canal.
  • The hard, creamy white substance that makes up the teeth and tusks of some animals.